Contact Writing Numbers Except for a few basic rules, spelling out numbers vs.
Chinese arithmeticians used counting rods well over two thousand years ago. On one of the wooden scripts was written: Using counting rods[ edit ] rod numeral place value from Yongle Encyclopedia: To avoid confusion, vertical and horizontal forms are alternately used.
Generally, vertical rod numbers are used for the position for the units, hundreds, ten thousands, etc. It is written in Sunzi Suanjing that "one is vertical, ten is horizontal". The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Artwhich was mainly composed in the first century CE, stated " when using subtraction subtract same signed numbers, add different signed numbers, subtract a positive number from zero to make a negative number, and subtract a negative number from zero to make a positive number".
This alternation of vertical and horizontal rod numeral form is very important to understanding written transcription of rod numerals on manuscripts correctly. For instance, in Licheng suanjin, 81 was transcribed asand was transcribed as ; it is clear that the latter clearly had a blank zero on the "counting board" i.
In the same manuscript, was transcribed aswith a blank space in between for obvious reasons, and could in no way be interpreted as "45". In other words, transcribed rod numerals may not be positional, but on the counting board, they are positional.
Place value[ edit ] The value of a number depends on its physical position on the counting board. A 9 at the rightmost position on the board stands for 9. Moving the batch of rods representing 9 to the left one position i. Shifting left again to the third position to the hundreds place gives 9 or Each time one shifts a number one position to the left, it is multiplied by Each time one shifts a number one position to the right, it is divided by This applies to single-digit numbers or multiple-digit numbers.
He then wrote the rod numerals according to their place value:It is in both the French and English languages; and in construing it it is a rule that when the expressions used in the French text of the code are more comprehensive than those used in English, or vice versa, the more enlarged sense will be taken, as thus full effect will be given to both clauses.
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