Two main causes of desertification

Or, to put it another way — desertification is the process by which previously biologically productive land is transformed into wasteland. Or nudge it off a cliff, for that matter.

Two main causes of desertification

Population pressure, however, has led to a growing tension between two main land uses: pastoral rangeland and cultivated land use. In some areas, this led to intercultural conflicts and desertification as herders and farmers claim access to and use of the same land. Degradation of the soil is caused by natural processes as well as by human activities. Now let us briefly study about both of these. Soil is a complex body and forms the thin outer layer of the earth. Causes of land pollution. Increase in urbanization. Construction uses up forestland. More constructions means increase in demand for raw materials like timber.

The incredible scale of this loss has led to significant changes throughout many parts of the world, and in recent years these changes have been accelerating. Deforestation occurs primarily as a result of: And also, to a degree, due to large scale war — throughout history fire has often been used as a way to deprive enemy populations of necessary resources.

Many of the areas of the world that were deforested thousands of years ago remain as severely degraded wastelands or deserts today.

Deforestation Two main causes of desertification, Causes, And Examples: A Top 10 List 1.

What are the main causes of land degradation ? Desertification is defined as a process of land degradation in arid, semi-arid and sub-humid areas due to various factors including climatic variations and human activities. Or, to put it in another way, desertification results in persistent degradation of dryland and fragile ecosystems due to man-made activities and variations in climate.
global warming | Definition, Causes, & Effects | This problem varies from overgrazing in rangeland, to water and wind erosion in rainfed croplands, and to salinization in irrigated lands. In dry-lands, however, the most serious land-degradation problem is water and wind erosion.
Mass Migration Definitions[ edit ] Considerable controversy exists over the proper definition of the term "desertification" for which Helmut Geist has identified more than formal definitions.

Agriculture Agriculture is one of the primary drivers of deforestation — both in modern times and in ancient times. The vast old-growth forests that once covered much of the world have largely been cut and burned down because of agriculture.

Even the most efficient agricultural systems and practices inevitably lead to nutrient loss unless supplemented with fertilizer brought in from elsewhere — this nutrient-loss is especially pronounced with GMO genetically modified food agriculture.

And this, along with the soil erosion that accompanies the loss of large vegetation, further contributes to the soil erosion and desertification that seems to almost inevitably follow deforestation in the long term.

Population Growth And Expansion While agriculture is often the direct cause of deforestation, growing and expanding populations are often the driver.

Effects of Desertification

Such large population numbers and densities make people very dependent upon agriculture for survival, and also, importantly, dependant upon expansion. With increased population numbers also comes increased urbanization — which brings with it further impetus for deforestation, and also a number of other negative influences on the surrounding areas via various forms of pollution.

As large populations often quickly use up all of the resources located near them, they almost always become dependent upon expansion in order to continue fueling their infrastructure — this continues until the reliance on distant, far-off resources becomes too burdensome and inefficient, and the civilization collapses or retracts.

Western Europe experienced significant deforestation from around to as a result of the then rapidly expanding human population. The large industries of the day — the building of wooden sailing ships by European naval powers, colonization and resource-plunder dependent on ships, slave-trade and other sea-based trade — largely consumed and used up the forest resources of Europe.

What are the causes of land pollution

The newly empowered resource producing regions often then follows the same trajectory. Desertification Effects, Causes, and Examples. Most of the desertification that these civilizations experienced was as a result of agriculture, deforestation, and the associated changes in aridity and the climate.

As these lands are cultivated the limited nutrients that are available in them are quickly depleted. Often times the land is also improperly irrigated — leading to salty soils, and emptied aquifers.

As a side note, the Sahara Desert is currently expanding south at a rate of up to 48 kilometers per year. And is well known for its large stone monuments, called moai. Based on current evidence, the island was likely settled by its current Polynesian inhabitants around CE, give or take a few hundred years.

Subsequently, agricultural failures occurred, and, also, the ability to build seaworthy ships was lost. The final disappearance of the trees on the island seems to coincide exactly with the large-scale decline of its civilization sometime around the 17th or 18th century.

The archeological record clearly shows that the current state of the island is vastly different from what it was at the time of its settlement. Before settlement, the island was nearly entirely forest, with many species of trees that are now extinct there — several of which reached heights of over 50 feet.

After resources shortages started to begin the population on the island plummeted to around 2,—3, — from a previous high of approximately 15, It was during this time of crisis that 21 different species of trees, and all of the species of land-birds became extinct.

This included at least two species of rails, two species of parrots, and a heron species.

Harappan Civilization

As a result of the loss of large trees, the islanders were no longer able to create seaworthy ships. This led to significant changes in their diet, from a diet where previously fish and dolphins had provided abundant protein, to one that was almost completely reliant on farming and domesticated chickens.

Previously there had also been an abundant resource in the large land-bird and sea-bird populations on the island, these disappeared shortly after the loss of the ability to fish — very likely from over exploitation.

As a result of the deforestation, rainfall levels also fell considerably — as without trees the evaporation and condensation cycle on the island was greatly weakened. Soil erosion because of lack of trees is apparent in some places.

Sediment samples document that up to half of the native plants had become extinct and that the vegetation of the island drastically altered. Polynesians were primarily farmers, not fishermen, and their diet consisted mainly of cultivated staples such as taro root, sweet potato, yams, cassava, and bananas.

With no trees to protect them, sea spray led to crop failures exacerbated by a sudden reduction in fresh water flows.

Two main causes of desertification

There is evidence that the islanders took to planting crops in caves beneath collapsed ceilings and covered the soil with rocks to reduce evaporation. Cannibalism occurred on many Polynesian islands, sometimes in times of plenty as well as famine.

Two main causes of desertification

Its presence on Easter Island based on human remains associated with cooking sites, especially in caves is supported by oral histories.Abstract.

Desertification, a phenomenon referring to land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid regions as a result of climatic variations and human activities, is considered as one of the most severe environmental and socio-economic problems of recent times.

The answer is simple - anything that reduces the productivity and potential use of a piece of land.


Here, 'productivity and potential' refers to prospective uses of a land that can be used for any purpose, for which land is used; including infrastructure, housing, services, agriculture, forestry, etc. the two main causes of desertification.

What factors lead to biodiversity loss?

Climatic variations: Climate change, drought, moisture loss on a activities which are one of the principal causes of desertification. The table below shows the population in drylands by each continent and as a percentage of the global.

Biodiversity change is caused by a range of drivers.A driver is any natural or human-induced factor that directly or indirectly causes a change in an ecosystem.

A direct driver unequivocally influences ecosystem indirect driver operates more diffusely, by altering one or more direct plombier-nemours.comant direct drivers affecting biodiversity are habitat change, climate change. Eritrea (/ ˌ ɛr ɪ ˈ t r eɪ. ə, -ˈ t r iː ə /; Tigrinya: ኤርትራ (listen)), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at is bordered by Sudan in the west, Ethiopia in the south, and Djibouti in the southeast.

The northeastern and eastern parts of Eritrea have an extensive coastline along the Red Sea. Desertification is a process of land-degradation by which a region becomes progressively drier and drier — eventually becoming desert.

Or, to put it another way — desertification is the process by which previously biologically productive land is transformed into wasteland.

The Elimination of Food Insecurity in the Horn of Africa