Gunning For Third Place Arjun Bodke's life has become both better as well as more difficult since he became a supplier for Reliance Fresh three years ago.
But it is not without controversy.
Advocates say it raises government revenues without punishing success or wealth, as income taxes do; it is also simpler and more standardized than a traditional sales tax, and there are fewer compliance issues. Critics charge that a VAT is essentially a regressive tax that places an increased economic strain on lower-income taxpayers, and also adds bureaucratic burdens for businesses.
Value-added taxation is based on a taxpayer 's consumption rather than his income. In contrast to a progressive income tax, which levies greater taxes on higher-level earners, VAT applies equally to every purchase. The tax is assessed and collected at each stage, in contrast to sales tax that is only assessed and paid by the consumer at the very end of the supply chain.
Say, for example, Dulce is an expensive candy manufactured and sold in the country of Alexia.
However, the manufacturer renders only 30 cents to Alexia, which is the total VAT at this point, minus the prior VAT charged by the raw material supplier. Sales Tax VATs and sales taxes can raise the same amount of revenue; the difference lies in at what point the money is paid — and by whom.
Again, assume a VAT of 10 percent. A farmer sells wheat to a baker for 30 cents. The baker pays 33 cents; the extra 3 cents represents the VAT, which the farmer sends to the government.
The baker uses the wheat to make bread and sells a loaf to a local supermarket for 70 cents. The supermarket pays 77 cents, including a 7 cent VAT.
The baker sends 4 cents to the government; the other 3 cents were paid by the farmer. The VAT differs in that it is paid at different stops along the supply chain; the farmer pays 3 cents, the baker 4 cents and the supermarket 3 cents.
However, a VAT offers advantages over a national sales tax. It is much easier to track. The exact tax levied at each step of production is known; with a sales tax, the entire amount is rendered after the sale, making it difficult to allocate to specific production stages.
Additionally, because the VAT only taxes each value addition and not the sale of a product itself, assurance is provided that the same product is not double-taxed. The United States remains the only notable exception. Most industrial countries with a VAT adopted their systems in the s.
Results have been mixed, but there is certainly no tendency among VAT countries to have small budget deficits or low government debt. According to one International Monetary Fund study, any state that switches to VAT initially feels the negative impact of reduced tax revenues despite its greater revenue potential down the road.
VAT has earned a negative connotation in some parts of the world where it has been introduced, even hurting its proponents politically.
In the Philippines, for example, Senator Rafael Recto, the chief proponent of VAT in the s, was voted out of office by the electorate when he ran for re-election. But in the years that followed its implementation, the population eventually accepted the tax.
Hindustan Lever, the Indian consumer goods company 51% owned by Unilever, for example, knew that many Indians could not afford to buy a big bottle of shampoo so it . PROJECT REPORT ON A STUDY ON THE MARKETING STARTEGY OF DABUR INDIA LIMITED Submitted in Partial Fulfillment for the Award of the Degree of Bachelor in Business Administration Under the Guidance of: Submitted By. Unilever Supply Chain Management ~ here you are at our site, this is images about unilever supply chain management posted by Benson Fannie in Diagram category on Nov 14, You can also find other images like wiring diagram, parts diagram, replacement parts, electrical diagram, repair manuals, engine diagram, engine scheme, wiring harness.
Recto ended up finding his way back to the Senate, where he became the proponent an expanded VAT. VAT in the U. There's been much debate in the U.
Advocates claim it would increase government revenue, help fund essential social services and reduce the federal deficit.
Of course, these figures don't account for all of the outside impacts of a VAT system. A VAT would change the structure of production in the United States; not all firms will be equally able to absorb the hike in input costs. It is unknown if the additional revenue would be used as an excuse to borrow more money — historically proven to be the case in Europe — or reduce taxes in other areas potentially making the VAT budget-neutral.
More importantly, it would make it much more difficult to avoid paying taxes. A VAT would collect revenue on all goods sold in America, including online purchases. Despite efforts to close tax loopholes that allow internet companies to avoid charging customers taxes in states where they do not have a brick-and-mortar business, unpaid taxes on online sales cost states billions in potential income that could fund schools, law enforcement and other services.
If a VAT supplants American income tax, it eliminates the disincentive-to-succeed complaint levied against such progressive tax systems: Citizens get to keep more of the money they make and are only affected by taxes when purchasing goods.
This change not only confers a stronger incentive to earn, it also encourages saving and discourages frivolous spending theoretically. Opponents, however, note many potential drawbacks of a VAT, including increased costs for business owners throughout the chain of production.
Because VAT is calculated at every step of the sales process, bookkeeping alone results in a bigger burden for a company, which then passes on the additional cost to the consumer.Chart and Diagram Slides for PowerPoint - Beautifully designed chart and diagram s for PowerPoint with visually stunning graphics and animation effects.
Our new CrystalGraphics Chart and Diagram Slides for PowerPoint is a collection of over impressively designed data-driven chart and editable diagram s guaranteed to impress any audience.
The Rs, crore company Hindustan Unilever Limited has shown interest to invest more on beauty, food and water segments. Dove falls under the beauty segment because the products offered by the brand marketed as beauty products for women in skin care category.
Personal products account for 38% of the total revenue of HUL. Hindustan Unilever (HUL) is the largest pure-play FMCG Company. It has a strong distribution channel. It owns and markets some of the most popular brands in the country across various categories, including soaps, detergents, shampoos, tea and face creams.
This guide has been developed to support evidence gathering and strengthen the business case for water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), which is currently lacking.
INDEX Sr. No. Title Author Subject Page No. 1 Cost of capital: an empirical case study of hindustan 9 New Products of Tourism in India Dr. M. K. Maru Commerce 10 Inventory Management in Sugar Mills - A Comparative Tarsem Lal Commerce 12 Warehouse Management Information System: A New Perspective in Supply Chain Management Dr.
The organizational structure of an organization tells you the character of an organization and the values it believes in. Therefore, when you do business with an organization or getting into a new job in an organization, it is always a great idea to get to know and understand their organizational structure.