A deductive approach usually begins with a hypothesis, whilst an inductive approach will usually use research questions to narrow the scope of the study. For deductive approaches the emphasis is generally on causality, whilst for inductive approaches the aim is usually focused on exploring new phenomena or looking at previously researched phenomena from a different perspective. Inductive approaches are generally associated with qualitative research, whilst deductive approaches are more commonly associated with quantitative research. However, there are no set rules and some qualitative studies may have a deductive orientation.
By using lectures, a case study and discussion of presentations of the students own research proposals, I try to familiarize them with the contents of a research proposal for a quantitative study.
In I developed a first draft of a format and I have been adapting that ever since. By publishing it here I hope that others students, researchers also can take advantage of it when writing their proposals.
The Introduction should contain the following sections: This is a concise description of the nature of the problem the discrepancy between what is and what should be and of the size, distribution and severity of the problem who is affected, where, since when, and what are the consequences.
Rationale for the study: A brief description of any solutions to the problem that have been tried in the past should be given, how well they have worked, and why further research is needed.
Significance of the study: This is a description of the type of information expected to result from the project and a clarification of how this information will be used to help solve the problem contribution to existing knowledge.
Objectives of the study, including the general objective general aim or purpose of the study which is derived from the research topic and specific objectives which are based on your general objective. You should list the specific objectives to be achieved at the end of the study.
This can either be in the form of a statement to determine, to compare, … or a research question. In the case of analytical or experimental studies, hypotheses could be stated instead of specific objectives.
Hypotheses are propositions about relationships between variables or differences between groups that are tested. Define all the concepts in your title and objectives operationally, i.
Define the dependent variable, the independent variable s and if relevant, the confounding variables. The Literature Review can either be a separate section or be part of the problem statement. Use literature preferably journal articles from the country you are conducting your study in e.
South Africaother countries in the same continent e. Describe for each study when it was conducted or publishedwhere it was conducted, who the participants were number, gender, age etc.
The Research methods section contains the following items: Select and explain the design of your study based on the research topic. State whether it is an observational study or an intervention study. If it is an observational study, is it a descriptive study or an analytical study cross-sectional, case-control, cohort study.
In case of an intervention study describe, if relevant, the method of randomization and concealment of treatment allocation. A brief description of the geography of the area, e. This all as far as this information is relevant to the problem being investigated. Study population and sampling: Define the study population e.
In the case of an intervention study, describe the interventions that the treatment and control groups receive.
Based on your topic, research design and study population, identify the appropriate instrument s for data collection, such as: Describe the instrument s in detail including validity, reliability.
Is blinding applied for caregivers, participants, outcome assessors where relevant? Plan for data collection: Who will collect what data, in what sequence, how, when?
Plan for data management and analysis: This should cover the categorizing, coding, data entry, verification, use of computer program for data entry and data analysisand statistical techniques. State how you intend to follow the ethical rules e.
Is your sample size small? Did you use a nonprobability sampling method to select your sample?John W. Creswell, PhD, is a professor of family medicine and co-director of the Michigan Mixed Methods Research and Scholarship Program at the University of Michigan. He has authored numerous articles and 28 books on mixed methods research, qualitative research, and research design.
While at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, he held the Clifton Endowed Professor Chair, served as director of. Here is a course in boundary element methods for the absolute beginners.
It assumes some prior basic knowledge of vector calculus (covering topics such as line, surface and volume integrals and the various integral theorems), ordinary and partial differential equations, . My PhD supervisor asked me what the difference between methods and methodology was several months ago and I did not know the answer.
All I could muster in a pathetic response was a look of bewilderment. ii SUMMARY This study focuses on records management in support of service delivery in the public health sector of Limpopo Province, South Africa. An exploratory mixed methods study was conducted to investigate potential differences in the pro-environmental values and beliefs of people from the UK Christian, .
About the Committee. Our new concentration in Quantitative Methods and Social Analysis (QMSA) draws from the interdisciplinary faculty of the University-wide Committee on Quantitative Methods in Social, Behavioral, and Health plombier-nemours.comic advances in statistical modeling, experimental design, and statistical analysis have created unprecedented opportunities for advancing knowledge across.