How can logical fallacies get in the way of critical thinking

Share Tweet Before I begin, let me make a very clear statement: Adding technology cannot alone increase engagement, empower our students, and lead to academic and life success during and long after school is over. Yet, the recent set of articles from NPR and Time Magazine among others that paint a picture of technology as a detriment to learning is both limited in scope and altogether a one-sided argument that does not allow for a gray area to appear.

How can logical fallacies get in the way of critical thinking

Division Merely because a group as a whole has a characteristic, it often doesn't follow that individuals in the group have that characteristic. If you suppose that it does follow, when it doesn't, your reasoning contains the Fallacy of Division.

Joshua's soccer team is the best in the division because it had an undefeated season and won the division title, so their goalie must be the best in the division.

Domino See Slippery Slope. Double Standard There are many situations in which you should judge two things or people by the same standard. If in one of those situations you use different standards for the two, your reasoning contains the Fallacy of Using a Double Standard.

I know we will hire any man who gets over a 70 percent on the screening test for hiring Post Office employees, but women should have to get an 80 to be hired because they often have to take care of their children.

This example is a fallacy if it can be presumed that men and women should have to meet the same standard for becoming a Post Office employee.

Equivocation Equivocation is the illegitimate switching of the meaning of a term that occurs twice during the reasoning; it is the use of one word taken in two ways. The fallacy is a kind of Fallacy of Ambiguity. Brad is a nobody, but since nobody is perfect, Brad must be perfect, too.

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The term "nobody" changes its meaning without warning in the passage. Equivocation can sometimes be very difficult to detect, as in this argument from Walter Burleigh: If I call you a swine, then I call you an animal.

Etymological The Etymological Fallacy occurs whenever someone falsely assumes that the meaning of a word can be discovered from its etymology or origins. The word "vise" comes from the Latin "that which winds," so it means anything that winds.

Since a hurricane winds around its own eye, it is a vise. Every and All The Fallacy of Every and All turns on errors due to the order or scope of the quantifiers "every" and "all" and "any. Every action of ours has some final end.

How can logical fallacies get in the way of critical thinking

So, there is some common final end to all our actions. In proposing this fallacious argument, Aristotle believed the common end is the supreme good, so he had a rather optimistic outlook on the direction of history.

Exaggeration When we overstate or overemphasize a point that is a crucial step in a piece of reasoning, then we are guilty of the Fallacy of Exaggeration. This is a kind of error called Lack of Proportion.

She's practically admitted that she intentionally yelled at that student while on the playground in the fourth grade.

How can logical fallacies get in the way of critical thinking

Then she said nothing when the teacher asked, "Who did that? Do you want to elect as secretary of this club someone who is a known liar prone to assault? Doing so would be a disgrace to our Collie Club. When we exaggerate in order to make a joke, though, we do not use the fallacy because we do not intend to be taken literally.

False Analogy The problem is that the items in the analogy are too dissimilar. When reasoning by analogy, the fallacy occurs when the analogy is irrelevant or very weak or when there is a more relevant disanalogy. See also Faulty Comparison. The book Investing for Dummies really helped me understand my finances better.

The book Chess for Dummies was written by the same author, was published by the same press, and costs about the same amount. So, this chess book would probably help me understand my finances, too. False Balance A specific form of the False Equivalence Fallacy that occurs in the context of news reporting, in which the reporter misleads the audience by suggesting the evidence on two sides of an issue is equally balanced, when the reporter knows that one of the two sides is an extreme outlier.

Reporters regularly commit this fallacy in order to appear "fair and balanced. The news report of the yesterday's city council meeting says, "David Samsung challenged the council by saying the Gracie Mansion is haunted, so it should not be torn down.

Councilwoman Miranda Gonzales spoke in favor of dismantling the old mansion saying its land is needed for an expansion of the water treatment facility. Both sides seemed quite fervent in promoting their position. False Cause Improperly concluding that one thing is a cause of another.

My psychic adviser says to expect bad things when Mars is aligned with Jupiter. Tomorrow Mars will be aligned with Jupiter. So, if a dog were to bite me tomorrow, it would be because of the alignment of Mars with Jupiter.

False Dilemma A reasoner who unfairly presents too few choices and then implies that a choice must be made among this short menu of choices is using the False Dilemma Fallacy, as does the person who accepts this faulty reasoning.

A pollster asks you this question about your job:Fallacies In Advertising - Fallacies in Advertising According to Bassham et al. (), a logical fallacy is “an argument that contains a mistake in reasoning” (p. ). Buy Mastering Logical Fallacies: The Definitive Guide to Flawless Rhetoric and Bulletproof Logic on plombier-nemours.com FREE SHIPPING on qualified orders.

3. Appeal to Ignorance (argumentum ad ignorantiam)Any time ignorance is used as a major premise in support of an argument, it’s liable to be a fallacious appeal to ignorance. When arguing with someone in an attempt to get at an answer or an explanation, you may come across a person who makes logical fallacies.

Logical Fallacies

Such discussions may prove futile. The Foundation is a non-profit organization that seeks to promote essential change in education and society through the cultivation of fairminded critical thinking--thinking which embodies intellectual empathy, intellectual humility, intellectual perseverance, intellectual integrity and intellectual responsibility.

The Foundation is a non-profit organization that seeks to promote essential change in education and society through the cultivation of fairminded critical thinking--thinking which embodies intellectual empathy, intellectual humility, intellectual perseverance, intellectual integrity and intellectual responsibility.

Emotional Competency - Inquiry, Evidence, and Argument