Students break down sentences to learn how the elements relate to each other.
Provenance of Beowulf ms.
The author of Beowulf is unknown, as is the exact date of the composition of the poem. In its present form, Beowulf was possibly composed as early as the seventh century or as late as This codex is a composite codex assembled in the first half of the 17th century, itself consisting of two Old English codices: The Southwick Codex again, itself almost definitely a composite codex contains the four prose items: The Nowell Codex contains the five items: Christopher prose fragment ; 2 The Wonders of the East prose, illuminated ; 3 Alexander's Letter to Aristotle prose ; 4 Beowulf verse ; 5 Judith verse fragment.
The Nowell Codex is also a composite book; and Kevin Kiernan offers convincing evidence that Beowulf itself originated as a separate codex see below. First page of the Beowulf manuscript: The first scribe, who writes in an Anglo-Saxon rounded insular minuscule hand with some carolignian features, copied the first three prose pieces of the Nowell Codex and a little over the first 85 pages of Beowulf up to the word moste on line in this edition, on folio v.
The second scribe, who writes a more conservative Anglo-Saxon Beowulf history outline minuscule hand, copied the remainder of Beowulf roughly lines and the poem Judith which follows.
Both scribes proof-read their writing, and the second scribe also proof-read the writing of the first scribe see Kiernan for further detailsas well as possibly making some later alterations to Beowulf see II. There are currently leaves in the Nowell Codex, Beowulf filling 70 of them.
The beginning of St. Christopher was already lost when Nowell put his name on the first leaf and probably the bulk of Judith as well. Its history prior to coming into Nowell's possession remains a blank. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, the Nowell Codex passed into the library of Sir Robert Cotton , an antiquarian; whence its British Library designation, for Cotton catalogued his books according to busts of the Roman emperors that surmounted each of his bookcases, and in the case of the codex in question, it was presided over by Vitellius.
A committee of the House of Commons became trustees of the bequest and appointed Humfrey Wanley as one of the members of a commission to report on the state of the library.
Wanley reported that the location of the library, in the Cotton House, was unfit and eventually, inthe collection was moved to Essex House, Strand and there it remained for seven years. Though an Act of Parliament 6 Anne, c. So inafter Essex House was deemed unfit, it was moved to another interim residence: The ill-omened name did not fail to disappoint, and in Octoberthe house caught fire.
Much of the library was damaged and some volumes completely destroyed--damage resulted not only from the flames themselves, but also from the water used to extinguish the fire; the Beowulf MS was presumably saved by being thrown from the window, though it is badly burnt along its outer edges see Syd Allan's Ashburnham House Fire page and Andrew Prescott's online article '"Their Present Miserable State of Cremation": The collection finally made its way in into the care of the British Museum, where it was finally provided a much-needed rebinding in Augustas well as having its leaves inlaid within heavy sheets of paper--the latter of which, for the most part, halted the loss of letters and words from the crumbling edges of the MS, which had previously suffered this sort of damage continually from the late s until It is unclear exactly when Beowulf began to be studied in post-Saxon times.
Nowell and Cotton may or may not have paid it any attention. The first modern reference to the poem is a brief description by Humfrey Wanley see above who mistakenly described it as a story about Beowulf 'the Dane' who feuded with Swedish princes.
In Thorkelin went to England to research Danish heroes in British libraries; coming across Wanley's description, he hired a professional scribe to copy the manuscript the document now known as Thorkelin A and later himself made a copy Thorkelin B.
These transciptions are invaluable in that they preserve almost letters which are now lost from the edges of the scorched vellum.
The poem was not printed in its entirety until Thorkelin's edition with facing Latin translation appeared in ; the first complete vernacular translation in Danish of Nicholas Grundtvig appeared in ; and not until did the first complete English translation of John Mitchell Kemble from a family of prominent actors, himself a student of the German linguist, folklorist and political activist Jacob Grimm [of the 'Brothers Grimm'].
Innumerable subsequent editions and translations into many languages have appeared since. Construction of the manuscript:There one of King Hygelac's retainers, Beowulf, heard the story of Hrothgar's dilemma.
Hrothgar had once done a favor for Beowulf's father, Ecgtheow, and so, perhaps feeling indebted, and certainly inspired by the challenge of overcoming Grendel, Beowulf determined to travel to . As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 75, lessons in math, English, science, history, and more.
Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. OUTLINE HISTORY. OF THE BRITISH LITERATURE 1.
The Old English/ Anglo – Saxon Period ( – AD) 2. The Middle English Period ( – ). Outline I. Thesis Statement: In his quest for glory, Beowulf fights three important battles—two with monsters and one with a dragon. These battles have both similarities and differences.
Götaland (Swedish: [²jøːtaˌland] (listen), also Gothia, Gothland, Gothenland or Gautland) is one of three lands of Sweden and comprises ten plombier-nemours.comphically it is located in the south of Sweden, bounded to the north by Svealand, with the deep woods of Tiveden, Tylöskog and Kolmården marking the border..
Götaland once consisted of petty kingdoms, and their inhabitants were. BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard.